Water Content and Scatterers Dispersion Evaluation in Colorectal Tissues

Isa Carneiro
Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto, Department of Pathology and Cancer Biology and Epigenetics Group-Research Centre, Porto, Portugal

Sónia Carvalho
Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto, Department of Pathology and Cancer Biology and Epigenetics Group-Research Centre, Porto, Portugal

Rui Henrique
Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto, Department of Pathology and Cancer Biology and Epigenetics Group-Research Centre, Porto, Portugal
Department of Pathology and Molecular Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar – University of Porto (ICBAS-UP), Portugal

Luís Oliveira (Login required)
Polytechnic of Porto, School of Engineering, Physics Department, Portugal
Centre of Innovation in Engineering and Industrial Technology, ISEP, Porto, Portugal

Valery V. Tuchin
Research-Educational Institute of Optics and Biophotonics, Saratov State University, Russia
Laboratory of Laser Diagnostics of Technical and Living Systems, Institute of Precision Mechanics and Control Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov, Russia
Department of Laser and Biotechnical Systems, Samara National Research University, Russia


Paper #3254 received 30 Oct 2017; revised manuscript received 11 Dec 2017; accepted for publication 19 Dec 2017; published online 31 Dec 2017. [Saratov Fall Meeting 2017 Special Issue].

DOI: 10.18287/JBPE17.03.040301

Abstract

Optical clearing treatments reduce light scattering in biological tissues. Due to the heterogeneous composition of tissues, such high scattering is created by the refractive index mismatch between tissue fluids and scatterers. With the objective of collecting experimental data to predict and characterize the magnitude of the refractive index matching in optical clearing treatments, a series of studies were performed with colorectal tissues. The free water content in normal mucosa, muscle and pathological colorectal tissues was estimated, showing similar values for normal tissues and about 5% more in pathological tissue. The refractive index of the tissues was measured at various wavelengths between UV and NIR. This data was used to estimate the refractive dispersion curves for the various tissues, which were then combined with the free water contents to calculate the dispersion of scatterers in these tissues. These dispersions remain unchanged during optical clearing and by obtaining such spectral data, it is possible to quantify and characterize the refractive index matching mechanism in any optical clearing treatment to be applied in these tissues. The differences obtained between the experimental data of healthy and pathological tissues can also be used as a marker for cancer progression in ex vivo analysis.

Keywords

colorectal tissue; cancer; refractive index; light scattering; tissue water content; free and bound water; optical clearing

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