Tissue Spectroscopy and Optical Clearing of Colorectal Mucosa in the Pursuit of New Cancer Diagnostic Approaches

Luís Fernandes
Physics Department, School of Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Portugal

Hugo Silva
Physics Department, School of Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Portugal
Center of Innovation in Engineering and Industrial Technology, ISEP, Portugal

Inês Martins
Physics Department, School of Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Portugal
Center of Innovation in Engineering and Industrial Technology, ISEP, Portugal

Sónia Carvalho
Department of Pathology and Cancer Biology and Epigenetics Group-Research Center, Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto, Portugal
Department of Pathology, Santa Luzia Hospital, ULSAM, Viana do Castelo, Portugal

Isa Carneiro
Department of Pathology and Cancer Biology and Epigenetics Group-Research Center, Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto, Portugal

Rui Henrique
Department of Pathology and Cancer Biology and Epigenetics Group-Research Center, Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto, Portugal
Department of Pathology and Molecular Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar-University of Porto (ICBAS-UP), Portugal

Valery V. Tuchin
Science Medical Center, Saratov State University, Russian Federation
Laboratory of Laser Molecular Imaging and Machine Learning, National Research Tomsk State University, Russian Federation
Laboratory of Laser Diagnostics of Technical and Living Systems, Precision Mechanics and Control Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov, Russian Federation

Luís M. Oliveira (Login required)
Physics Department, School of Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Portugal
Center of Innovation in Engineering and Industrial Technology, ISEP, Portugal


Paper #3447 received 31 Jul 2021; revised manuscript received 24 Aug 2021; accepted for publication 27 Aug 2021; published online 8 Sep 2021.

DOI: 10.18287/JBPE21.07.040302

Abstract

In this paper we present three studies that demonstrate the applicability of spectroscopy methods and optical clearing treatments in pathology identification and monitoring. In the first study, by obtaining the absorption spectra of human healthy and pathological (adenocarcinoma) colorectal mucosa tissues, it was possible to identify a higher content of a pigment in the diseased tissues. This study also shows that machine learning methods can be used to reach the same differentiated results in vivo through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. In the second study, the combination of collimated transmittance spectroscopy with optical clearing treatments allowed to obtain the diffusion coefficients of glucose in healthy and pathological colorectal mucosa as: Dglucose=5.8x10–7 cm2/s and Dglucose=4.4x10–7 cm2/s, respectively. This study also demonstrated that the diseased tissues contains about 5% more mobile water than the healthy tissues. The third study was performed to evaluate the protein dissociation mechanism of optical clearing. By treating both healthy and pathological colorectal mucosa tissues with 93%-glycerol, a protein dissociation rate of about 3 times higher was obtained for the pathological mucosa. All the discriminating parameters that result from these studies can be obtained in the in vivo situation through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and further studies to evaluate their values in different stages of cancer progression are of great importance to develop disease monitoring protocols.

Keywords

colorectal cancer; tissue optical clearing; optical clearing mechanisms; cancer detection; enhanced tissue spectroscopy

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