Activation of Apoptosis and Autophagy by Gratiola Officinalis Extract in Human Tumor Cell Lines
Paper #3449 received 1 Aug 2021; revised manuscript received 7 Oct 2021; accepted for publication 11 Oct 2021; published online 10 Nov 2021.
The problem of creating antitumor drugs with new mechanisms of action that predominantly induce apoptosis is still topical. The extract of Gratiola officinalis is a potential antitumor agent containing mainly flavonoids. The aim of this research is to study the effects of Gratiola officinalis extract on activation of apoptosis and autophagy in breast adenocarcinoma SK-BR-3 and kidney carcinoma A-498 lines. Apoptotic activity of the extract was studied by flow cytofluorometry using Hoechst stain and double staining with annexin V plus propidium iodide. There was 96.3% of cells in SK-BR-3 culture in late apoptosis phase detected by flow cytofluorometry method at the extract concentration of 0.88 mg/ml, 86.3% of cells were in apoptosis by Hoechst stain. The concentration of 0.82 mg/ml caused apoptosis in half of the cells. The extract has cytoprotective activity at low concentration (0.0352 mg/ml). The cytoprotection mechanism is realized through the activation of autophagy. The maximum number of autophagosomes in kidney carcinoma cells is observed at the extract concentration of 0.056 mg/ml. Thus, Gratiola officinalisextract is able to block cytoprotective autophagy with increasing the extract concentration and to activate apoptosis in 85% of tumor cells. Detailed research should be continued to understand the mechanisms of antitumor activity of Gratiola officinalisextract.
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