Justification of the Photoplethysmography Sensor Configuration by Monte Carlo Modeling of the Pulse Waveform

Denis G. Lapitan orcid (Login required)
Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (“MONIKI”), Russia

Andrey P. Tarasov orcid
Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (“MONIKI”), Russia
Federal Research Scientific Center "Crystallography and Photonics" of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Dmitry A. Rogatkin orcid
Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (“MONIKI”), Russia

Paper #3513 received 04 Aug 2022; accepted for publication 12 Sept 2022; published online 30 Sep 2022.

DOI: 10.18287/JBPE22.08.030306


Photoplethysmography (PPG) is an optical technique for detection of blood volume changes in the microvascular bed of a biological tissue. Many aspects of the PPG signal formation are still unclear. In particular, it is not known how the shape of a registered PPG signal depends on the geometry of tissue illumination. The aim of this study is to model the PPG waveform using the Monte Carlo (MC) method. For this, we developed a three-layer optical model of the skin in a reflectance geometry and verified it experimentally for different wavelengths (660, 810, and 940 nm) and source-detector distances (from 4 to 10 mm). The MC simulation results showed that the PPG waveform depends on the source-detector distance. The most pronounced diastolic wave is observed at the distance of 6 mm for the wavelength of 810 nm. The results obtained can be used for the development of reflectance PPG sensors.


photoplethysmography; pulse waveform; model; Monte Carlo; simulation; source-detector distance

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