Bilirubin- and Blue-Green Light-Induced Damage of Human Erythrocytes

Julia V. Kruchenok (Login required)
В.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Republic of Belarus

Olga N. Dudinova
В.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Republic of Belarus

Vitaly Y. Plavskii
В.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Republic of Belarus


Paper #8188 received 28 Feb 2023; revised manuscript received 25 May 2023; accepted for publication 25 May 2023; published online 9 Jun 2023.

Abstract

Phototherapy is widely used for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia treatment; however, the most important but not completely recognized issue is the determination of the optimal spectral range of light that provides an effective reduction of bilirubin level in the blood of a newborn with minimal adverse side effects. This study demonstrates that the exposure of radiation from LED sources of blue (emission wavelength λmax = 463 nm, FWHM 20 nm) and green (λmax = 517 nm, FWHM 38 nm) spectral regions to the erythrocyte suspension with the same energy dose (D = 14.4 J/cm2) leads to approximately equally effective hemolysis of erythrocytes. It is concluded that the damage of erythrocyte membranes is caused by the excitation of endogenous porphyrin and flavin photosensitizers contained in the cells in low concentrations, but characterized by high efficiency of singlet oxygen generation. When bilirubin is added to the erythrocyte suspension, a spontaneous (dark) erythrocyte hemolysis intensifies, but the light-induced hemolysis slows down (compared to cells containing no bilirubin). Under the same conditions, the leakage of potassium ions from light-exposed erythrocytes is accelerating, with the light of green spectral region has a more pronounced effect, despite more intense absorption of blue light by bilirubin localized in cells.

Keywords

hyperbilirubinemia; phototherapy; blue LED radiation; green LED radiation; photohemolysis; potassium leakage; human erythrocyte membrane; protoporphyrin IX; Zn-protoporphyrin IX

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