Lossy Mode Resonance Based Fiber Optic Sensor for the Detection of Acetone Concentration

Asokan Prasanth
Vellore Institute of Technology, India

Varadharajan Kanchana Harini
Vellore Institute of Technology, India

Mohan Velumani
Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, India

Subramaniyam Narasimman
Vellore Institute of Technology, India

Zachariah C. Alex (Login required)
Vellore Institute of Technology, India

Paper #8176 received 28 Feb 2023; revised manuscript received 7 May 2023; accepted for publication 7 May 2023; published online 7 Aug 2023

DOI: 10.18287/JBPE23.09.030306


Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complication arising due to the shortage of insulin that allows blood sugar into cells to be used as energy. As a result, the liver begins to break down fat for energy, thus producing acids called ketones. The severity of DKA influences the number of ketones produced in the human body. Therefore, the acetone level in the human body samples has the potential to be used as a biomarker towards the analysis of diabetic levels. The present work reports the development of a Lossy Mode Resonance (LMR) based fiber optic sensor to detect acetone concentration in liquids. A sensing region was developed by coating Aluminium doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) over the unclad core region using sputtering technique. The structural, morphological, and optical properties of the AZO coating were analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and an ellipsometer device. The sensor probe used to measure the acetone concentration ranging from 10 µl/ml to 800 µl/ml recorded resonance wavelength shifts in LMR1, LMR2, and LMR3 of 38 nm, 19 nm, and 9 nm, respectively. The wavelength shift was larger for LMR1 than for the other peaks with a sensor response of 4.73% and a sensitivity of 0.3 nm/(µl/ml).


optical sensor; lossy mode resonance; acetone, diabetes

Full Text:



1. H. S. Lee, J. S. Hwang, “Cerebral infarction associated with transient visual loss in child with diabetic ketoacidosis,” Diabetic Medicine 28(5), 516–518 (2011).

2. “Diabetic ketoacidosis,” Pediatric Care Online (2016).

3. M. J. Sulway, J. M. Malins, “Acetone in diabetic ketoacidosis,” The Lancet 296(7676), 736–740 (1970).

4. M. J. Egoville, E. S. DellaMonica, “Gas chromatographic determination of water in acetone,” Journal of Chromatography A 212(1), 121–125 (1981).

5. Z. Xie, M. V. R. Raju, A. C. Stewart, M. H. Nantz, and X.-A. Fu, “Imparting sensitivity and selectivity to a gold nanoparticle chemiresistor through thiol monolayer functionalization for sensing acetone,” RSC Advances 8(62), 35618–35624 (2018).

6. A. Prasanth, S. Getachew, T. Shewa, M. Velumani, S. R. Meher, and Z. C. Alex, “A bilayer SnO2/MoS2-coated evanescent wave fiber optic sensor for acetone detection—an experimental study,” Biosensors 12(9), 734 (2022).

7. S. Sen, F. C. Onder, R. Capan, M. Ay, and C. O. Erdogan, “Humidity effect on real-time response of tetranitro-oxacalix[4]arene-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) acetone sensor at room temperature,” Optik 272, 170303 (2023).

8. L. L. Liu, C. Y. He, S. P. Morgan, R. Correia, and S. Korposh, “A fiber-optic localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor anchored with Metal Organic Framework (HKUST-1) film for acetone sensing,” Proceedings of SPIE 11199, 111990Z (2019).

9. F. B. Xiong, D. Sisler, “Determination of low-level water content in ethanol by fiber-optic evanescent absorption sensor,” Optics Communications 283(7), 1326–1330 (2010).

10. A. K. Pathak, V. Bhardwaj, R. K. Gangwar, and V. K. Singh, “SPR based cone tapered fiber optic chemical sensor for the detection of low water in ethanol,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1728, 020017 (2016).

11. M. A. Jalil, M. A. Abas, “Detection of acetone using surface plasmon resonance,” International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology 11(1), 1–4 (2023).

12. H. Chen, Q. Huang, and J. Shen, “Lossy mode resonance induced by cladding mode in long-period fibre grating,” Optik 196, 162992 (2019).

13. K. Swargiary, P. Metem, C. Kulatumyotin, S. Thaneerat, N. Ajchareeyasoontorn, P. Jitpratak, T. Bora, W. S. Mohammed, J. Dutta, and C. Viphavakit, “ZnO nanorods coated single-mode–multimode–single-mode optical fiber sensor for VOC biomarker detection,” Sensors 22(16), 6273 (2022).

14. M. Janik, M. Janczuk-Richter, D. Burnat, T. Gabler, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, M. Koba, P. Sezemsky, V. Stranak, and M. Śmietana, “Dopamine sensing with electrochemically-enhanced ITO-coated lossy-mode resonance optical fiber sensor,” Optical Fiber Sensors Conference 2020 Special Edition, Th4.18 (2021). ISBN: 978-1-55752-307-5.

15. A. Ozcariz, “Development of copper oxide thin film for lossy mode resonance-based optical fiber sensor,” Proceedings 13(2), 893 (2018).

16. N. Paliwal, J. John, “Sensitivity enhancement of aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) coated lossy mode resonance (LMR) fiber optic sensors using additional layer of oxides,” in Frontiers in Optics 2014, 19–23 October 2014, Tucson, Arizona, United States, JTu3A.40 (2014). ISBN: 1-55752-286-3.

17. A. Prasanth, S. R. Meher, and Z. C. Alex, “Metal oxide thin films coated evanescent wave based fiber optic VOC sensor,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 338, 113459 (2022).

18. A. Prasanth, S. R. Meher, and Z. C. Alex, “Experimental analysis of SnO2 coated LMR based fiber optic sensor for ethanol detection,” Optical Fiber Technology 65, 102618 (2021).

© 2014-2024 Samara National Research University. All Rights Reserved.
Public Media Certificate (RUS). 12+